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Health & Medicine: Volume I - First Aid (1 Viewer)

Cukie1

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(This work is currently unpublished. Pls no posty)
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Health & Medicine:
Volume I -
First Aid
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This tome is written in order to help aid
and teach in First Aid. It will provide the information needed in
order to understand what to do during times of heavy
stress or possibly even war times. This is the first tome in the collection of knowledge
gathered for the sake of the safety of people within the realm

and to further understand the sciences and their art.
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Chapters:
I - Bleeding
II - Cleansing
III - Types of Wounds
IV - Burns
V - Fractures
VI - Stitching & Treatment​
 
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Chapter I: Bleeding
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Wounds and blood loss is most likely one of the most common ways for the fall of our people, and thus is something that must be understood to quench this epidemic. Bleeding is classified as the loss of blood through either internal or external injury. An open wound is almost always the source of this loss. The average man holds about four liters of blood within his body at any given time, though this may not be entirely accurate for the larger races, and less accurate for those of smaller stature. This is why it is very important to judge the amount of blood lost to the size of the victim before you. If they were known to use any sort of blood thinner, or have taken substances with Morto's Hand within it's ingredients, one must tread carefully yet quickly, as the risk of death may be greater due to these effects.
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Class I Hemorrhage:
Minor blood loss is often the most common one. Often only loosing about 10-15% of blood before true symptoms settle in. In this state, they can recover easily and must east foods high in sugar and protein. They do not require much more medical attention, as they can recover with rest.

Class II Hemorrhage:
This type of blood loss is determined by the loss of 15-30% of fluid volume. This is often where you start seeing more obvious symptoms set in. The person's heart will begin to beat rapidly, often causing the bleeding to grow more severe as the heart tries to compensate the loss. The veins will begin to constrict and slowly pull the blood from the limbs, allowing that blood to flow to the vital organs. Limbs will begin to grow cold and less reactive. The victim may also suffer minor alterations to their behavior as well. This is usually remedied by replacing the lost fluids with salt and mineral solutions.

Class III Hemorrhage:
This is defined by the loss of about 30-40% blood loss. At this point, the blood pressure of the patient will drop with an increase in heart beats. They begin to become unresponsive and it becomes harder for veins and capillaries to fill or gain necessary blood. This in turn begins to set the person into a state known as 'Shock'. Blood transfusions and mineral fluids are required.

Class IV Hemorrhage:
Defined as the loss of >40% of blood. In this state, the person is unresponsive and will require aggressive resuscitation. They will have to receive not only blood, but mineral transfusions. Without these, they are certain to die. In this state, the body may not have enough blood to circulate from the heart to the brain, likely causing them to fall into a deep coma, or suffer brain death, should their body survive the loss.

Staunching the Bleeding:
In order to stop bleeding, a few steps are required. Some of these steps may be skipped if in a high tension environment, such as a battleground or dungeon. These steps are set in place to try and reduce bleeding as effectively as possible. They are for the benefit of the patient and made in order to protect and prevent further blood from being lost.
Firstly, apply clean gauze to the wound.​
Secondly, wrap the wound with a bandage roll.​
Thirdly, apply more gauze in order to absorb blood that has drenched through.​
Fourthly, apply a more elastic bandage in order to try and tighten the area and create a compress.​
Fifthly, apply pressure on the vein or artery. If the vein cannot be accessed, skip this step.​
Sixth, elevate the area of injury. This is done in order to cause the blood to drain downwards and towards the heart. If the injury is on the torso, keep them laying.​
Seventh, if bleeding has not ceased at this point, a tourniquet may be used in order to stop the flow of blood to the limb. This cannot be done for the torso.​
 
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Chapter II: Cleansing
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Firstly, it is important to understand the purpose of cleaning injury and how to properly do so. It is of utmost importance in order to properly tend to a wound and prevent any sort of foreign disease from infecting the host. Cleansing a wound is done primarily to prevent disease, but it is also done in order to remove any potential foreign bodies from embedding themselves into the soft tissue. If this is done improperly, it may cause far more pain to the patient at hand. It is important to note that wounds are a delicate matter in and of itself. They are not to be treated lightly or shrugged off as mere casualty. Infected wounds can often lead to deadly diseases if not taken care of, or, in the case of negligence, can even be the result of venomous intent. Once must always inspect a wound and it's source in order to properly treat and remove any potential threat from the patient. Furthermore, one should do so with diligence and steady hands, less you risk injuring the patient further. This chapter will help aid in understanding how to cleanse and clear a wound from foreign entities in ways that may help the patient recover with ease.

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In the Case of Combat Injury:
In the case of a combat injury sustained by slashing or event blunt damage resulting in the breaking of skin, one must firstly flush the wound with clean water or strong proof alcohol. In this case, one must continue to flush the injury for a few minutes before staunching and sealing the injury from the environment. This avoids foreign object such as grass and rocks from entering the wound and further worsening the injury at hand.

In the Case of Lodged Objects:
If an object has been lodged within the injury, one must attempt to flush it out with fluids before attempting to use any tool in order to pry it out. If the object does not dislodge itself from the injury, one can attempt to use thin long tweezers to pry the object out. This should be done under supervision if you are inexperienced and should never be done in a high risk area, lest you risk causing possible infection from this procedure.

In the Case of Penetration or Infection:
In this case, a thorough flushing is required. Using clean fluids, one must flush, drain and possibly even add pressure to remove any case of puss or foreign bodies from the puncture. If it is suspected of being a foreign body, refer to the procedure above. If it is in the case of puss filled infection, one may even have to make a very minor incision to properly drain the pus from any possible pockets within the injury. This should be done in a controlled environment and not within the field.

In the Case of Venomous Intent:
In the case of venomous intent, this including poisoned blades or even snake bites, one must attempt to first reduce the chance of swelling that may rapidly occur. Use clean fluids, or even soap and water to try and clean the area. Flush the wounds with clean fluids and wrap the wound with dry bandages.

In the Case of Unknown Origin:
If you are unsure of the origin of the injury, simply flush and cleanse the wound through fluids or alcohol. Reduce the chance of infection through the use of alcohol, and if you have antiseptics on hand, apply them to these injuries once thoroughly cleaned. Seek medical help immediately.
 
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Chapter III: Types of Wounds
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Often times people treat every injury and wound as though they were the same, but every wound varies in treatment. Some wounds are more difficult to treat than others, and the state of the injury, along with how recent it was is vastly important. Wounds are classified as open injuries, often times on the skin. They may also be present within internal organs. Wounds are simply cuts, or injury that runs the risk of causing blood loss or infection if left untreated. It is why it is greatly important to understand the different types of wounds and how to treat them for better recovery. This chapter will explain the different injuries and how difficult it may be to treat them. The next chapter may go into further detail on how to treat these injuries properly.
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Laceration:
A laceration is considered a cut with rugged edges, making it a difficult thing to stitch. This cut is the most common seen. These cuts are usually done through rough and sudden motions, and are often at high risk of infection. They usually carry debris and foreign bodies from the object that ripped at the soft tissue.

Incision:
An incision is considered a precise cut along the soft tissue. These are purposeful, mostly used to describe surgical cuts during medical procedures. These have a lower risk of infection, as they are usually done within a controlled environment. Those outside of controlled environments may be the result of glass, knives, and other such sharp bladed objects.

Amputation:
The process of removing a limb from the body. This may happen due to accidents or for medical purposes. If done medically, the likely cause would be necrosis, gangrene, frostbite, or even burns. In accidents, these are most often the results of limbs being crushed under heavy weights, such as collapsing buildings and caverns. They may also be the result of combat.

Abrasion:
Better known as a scrape. These are injuries often achieved through rubbing, or falling. These are injuries of minimal regard, most of the time. They must still be treated to prevent infection, though otherwise don't pose a greater threat to the victim.

Avulsion:
An injury involving the tearing of something from the body. This is similar to an abrasion, but far more severe. This injury results in the partial tearing of body parts from the body, either internal or external. An avulsion can be as simple as an ear or torn eyelid, or as complex as veins or bone pulled from the skin.
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Puncture:
A deep wound received by a pierce into the victim. This injury has no exit wound and is most often the result of thrusting blades. Most often these wounds do not go further than the skin and muscle layers. They carry a high risk of disease and infection.

Penetration:
This wound is described as having an entrance and exit injury. They hold a high chance of blood loss and infection, as well as the possible rupturing of internal organs. This injury is highly dangerous and could quickly lead to the death of the patient if left untreated. Do not remove the object of penetration if it is still within the body until you are in a well controlled and safe environment.

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Contusion:
Better known as a bruise, is simply the rupturing of veins and blood vessels on a surface level. It can cause discomfort and swelling, but otherwise is considered harmless. Simply a result of blunt trauma, surgery, or even simple injury.

Hematoma:
While taking on the appearance of a bruise, these are more serious. They are a pooling of blood anywhere within the body due to broken blood vessels. They can be the result of injury or surgery, and can lead to further health issues if left untreated. These require a skilled medical hand to properly handle.
 
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Chapter IV: Burns
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Burns are uncommon, but not a fallacy. They pose a great risk to the patient, as they increase the risk of infection to the afflicted area. Burns are usually difficult to fully recover from, always leaving some sort of scarring or distortion to the flesh affected. These injuries are common in the lower tiers, as simply acts like cooking or stoking a fire poses the risk of gaining a burn. Burns may cause sensory damage as well, risking the area. In more severe cases of burning, they may only fully recover with the use of alchemicals or Healing magic. For these cases, time is of the essence in order to avoid severe infection and exposure.
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Class I Burn:
A class I burn can be identified as first degree, simply causing inflammation, redness and puffiness. This is essentially harmless, though can lead to discomfort, peeling and splotches on the skin. This can be treated with a simple aloe or sunbreath solution.

Class II Burn:
Class II burns are identified commonly as Second Degree. These burns can be easily identified for it's blistering skin. This leads to more damage to the surface layers of the skin, leaving behind blotches, and irritation. They will suffer inflammation, puffiness, redness, and sensitivity. They are at risk of infection if the blisters rupture. They can be treated with a Sunbreath and aloe solution.

Class III Burn:
Third degree burns are much more severe. They have an increased chance of infection and will cause permanent damage to the victim. The victim will lose sensitivity in the area, along with ruptures and blistering of the skin. The skin around them become inflamed and sensitive to the touch. These burns must be treated in a well controlled environment with minimal exposure to outside air. They must be treated with the constant changing of wet bandages with a soothing salve. Do not, under any circumstance, attempt to peel a dry bandage or cloth from a burned individual. This can lead to further rupturing of the skin and increase their chance of infection.

Class IV Burn:
These are highly rare, almost unused in the medical field. These can be identified rather easily, as the rupturing and damage to the area is much more severe, penetrating muscle, tissue, and even bone. This leaves behind an almost charred mess. This can very rarely be treated, and would require a potent alchemical or magical healing to keep the limb. IF none of these are provided, the loss of the limb is almost inevitable. These victims are also suceptible to blood clots forming within the skin. If the victim survives 'Shock', they may be able to recover.

Class V Burn:
Extremely rare to survive. These patients will fall into shock before they even realize the severity of their burns. These burns go as deep as starting to char bone. This can only be recovered through potent alchemicals or magic. The tissue and muscle in the affected area is essentially dead, and must be either removed or somehow replaced. They may suffer blood clots if they survive.

Class VI Burn:
Almost legendary in their ability to survive. They will only be able to recover this through alchemicals just as potent or magical healing. These burns have charred through the bone, leaving the area black, cooked, and numb. The victim would be a miracle to survive. These would have a high risk of blood clotting, risking the rest of their organs. They would lose the entirety of that limb, if unable to use magical means. This victim will most likely not even survive the initial shock.
 
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Chapter V: Fractures
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Fractures are easily described as any break or damage to the bone within the patient. These fractures come in many different shapes and forms, some more complex than others. The way to treat fractures takes practice, a steady hand, and likely the ability to feel no remorse at times. Fractures are commonplace among the military and army men, finding themselves wounded through forceful combat or blunt force trauma. They can often be the result of falling and even simply impact. They are the result of force striking the bone in a particular way that it creates a brittleness that leads to a shatter or break within the tissue.
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Stable Fracture:
As the name states, this fracture is simple. Everything within the bone's structure and alignment is in place, not requiring invasive procedures to treat. This fracture is simple, as no bones will be displaced or chipped, simply clean cut.

Transverse Fracture:
This fracture occurs perpendicular to the point of impact. That means that if the injury occurred at the top of the bone, the bone will split horizontally instead.

Comminuted Fracture:

Oblique Fracture:

Compound Fracture:

Hairline Fracture:

Avulsion Fracture:

Greenstick Fracture:

Spiral Fracture:

Pathological Fracture:
 
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Chapter VI - Stitching & Treatment
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The art of stitch-work and medical treatment is not one to take lightly, as it can be what saves, or ends a life. Often times, stitching a wound seems like a simple enough task, but many fail to realize just how difficult stitching a wound can be. For example, stitching a laceration is vastly different than an incision wound. It is because of this that we need to understand what we are working with, before diving into what you may not be experienced with. This is a careful art and it will help in learning for the future. Of course, every medic has their own way of treating these things, but these are the ones I have found most effective for this sort of injury.
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